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Jurisdiction

In law, jurisdiction is the authority given to a judge to take decisions in matters concerning the law. The word comes from the Latin jus, juris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak": and literally means: telling the law. Jurisdiction may b ...

                                               

Jurisprudence

Jurisprudence is the theory and philosophy of law. Scholars of jurisprudence, or legal philosophers, hope to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature of law, of legal reasoning, legal systems and of legal institutions. As jurisprudence has dev ...

                                               

Justice of the peace

A justice of the peace is a judicial officer, elected or appointed to a local court that has limited jurisdiction. In some locations a JP deals with traffic violations, parking tickets and may have the authority to perform marriages ceremonies. I ...

                                               

Law of Azerbaijan

The law of Azerbaijan is made up of many levels of codified forms of law. The laws of Azerbaijan are based on civil law. As the country was a republic of the Soviet Union until 1991, its laws have also been influenced heavily by socialist law. To ...

                                               

Law of the land

The phrase law of the land is a legal term. It means all of the laws in force within a country or region. The term was first used in the Magna Carta. It was used to mean the laws of the kingdom. This was distinct from Roman law or civil law. In t ...

                                               

Lawsuit

A lawsuit occurs when two people or organizations ask a court or judge to solve a disagreement or argument. The two participants in a lawsuit are called the parties. Each party is usually represented by a lawyer. That means that the lawyer will t ...

                                               

Learners permit

A learners permit can also be called a drivers permit, learners license, or provisional license. It is given to those who are learning to drive a car but do not meet the requirements for a drivers license. Many countries require drivers to have a ...

                                               

Legal burden of proof

The burden of proof is a level of proof that a party seeking to prove a fact must reach before it is accepted in a court of law. In a criminal case the burden of proof is on the prosecution. A defendant is not required to prove his or her innocen ...

                                               

Legal case

A legal case is a dispute between two parties that is resolved by a court or other legal process. A legal case may be either civil or criminal. The decision of a court is usually published in one form or another for later reference. In countries ...

                                               

Legal entity

A legal entity is a legal construct through which the law allows a group of natural persons to act as if they were a single person for certain purposes. The most common purposes are lawsuits, property ownership, and contracts. A legal entity is n ...

                                               

Legal liability

Legal liability is the legal responsibility a person has for their actions. It includes the responsibility to compensate another person for any harm or damages caused to them. Legal liability includes lawful obligations required by civil actions ...

                                               

Legal opinion

In law, a legal opinion is usually a written explanation by a judge or group of judges that accompanies an order or ruling in a case. Legal opinions may also be written by legal experts. A legal opinion is used to lay out the rationale and legal ...

                                               

Legal precedent

In common law legal systems, a precedent or authority is a legal case that establishes a principle or rule. This principle or rule is then used by the court or other judicial bodies use when deciding later cases with similar issues or facts. The ...

                                               

Legislation

Legislation is law which has been created by a legislature or other governing body. The term may refer to a single law, or the collective body of enacted law, while "statute" is also used to refer to a single law. Before an item of legislation be ...

                                               

Letters patent

Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, or government. They are generally used in granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation. Letters patent ...

                                               

License

A license allows someone to do something that they otherwise are not allowed to do. A person usually has to pay some money, and maybe pass a test to get a license. A license is usually written but it does not have to be. Most kinds of licenses ca ...

                                               

Lien

A lien is a form of security interest attached to property to secure the payment of a debt to a creditor. A lien is usually a public record. The owner of the property is called the lienee. The creditor or person holding the lien is called the lie ...

                                               

Lunatic

Lunatic is an old term that was used to refer to a person with a mental illness, or a mental disability. The term goes back to the Latin word lunaticus, which means of the moon, or moonstruck. It was also used in English law until about 1930, whe ...

                                               

Magna Carta

The Magna Carta was a document signed by King John after negotiations with his barons and their French and Scots allies at Runnymede, Surrey, England in 1215. There they sealed the Great Charter, called in Latin Magna Carta. It established a coun ...

                                               

Medical cannabis

Medical marijuana, aka medical cannabis, is cannabis and cannabinoids that are given by doctors to their patients. The use of marijuana as a medicine has not been tested much because it can be difficult to get enough of it to test and because of ...

                                               

Memorandum opinion

In law, a memorandum opinion is usually an unpublished legal opinion that cannot be cited as precedent. It is formally defined as: unanimous appellate opinion that succinctly states the decision of the court; an opinion that briefly reports the c ...

                                               

Minor (law)

A minor is a person under age of majority, drinking age, voting age or age of consent. They are also called underage. The age of majority depends on jurisdiction, though it is usually 18. Minor may be also used for other reasons. For example, in ...

                                               

Multinational corporation

Multinational corporations or multinational enterprises are organizations which own or control production of goods or services in countries other than the home country. They include large corporations which produce or sell goods or services in va ...

                                               

Napoleonic Code

The Napoleonic Code ‒ or Code Napoleon, officially the Code civil des Français ‒ is the French civil code established under Napoleon I in 1804. Four judges wrote the Code for Napoleon, to replace the many different kinds of law in different place ...

                                               

Natural person

In jurisprudence, a natural person is a real human being in contrast to an artificial person, meaning an organization that the law treats for some purposes as if it were a person distinct from its members or owner. For example, the right to vote ...

                                               

Negligence

In law, negligence is a kind of legal claim that people and organizations can bring if they are hurt. It is a kind of tort. The law calls someone negligent if he hurts someone else, or someone elses property, because he was not careful enough. In ...

                                               

Next of kin

A persons next of kin is that persons closest living blood relative or relatives. Some countries, such as the United States, have a legal definition of "next of kin". In other countries, such as the United Kingdom, "next of kin" may have no legal ...

                                               

Not proven

Not proven is a type of verdict in Scottish law. Out of the country, the "not proven" verdict may be referred to as the Scottish verdict, and in Scotland itself it may be referred to colloquially as the bastard verdict, which was a term coined by ...

                                               

Nuremberg principles

The Nuremberg principles were a set of guidelines for determining what constitutes a war crime. The document was created by the International Law Commission of the United Nations to codify the legal principles underlying the Nuremberg Trials of N ...

                                               

Pakistani nationality law

The Pakistani nationality law are the laws on citizenship of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The main law on nationality, the Pakistan Citizenship Act, was passed by the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 13 April 1951. Pakistan is the only co ...

                                               

Party (law)

A party is a person or group of persons that make up a single entity for the purposes of the law. They are a participant in legal proceeding and have an interest in the outcome. Parties include: the plaintiff, the defendant, a petitioner or a res ...

                                               

Per curiam decision

In law, a per curiam decision is a ruling issued by an appellate court in which the decision rendered is made by the court acting collectively and unanimously. In contrast to regular opinions, a per curiam does not list the individual judge respo ...

                                               

Pleading

Pleading is usually the first step in a lawsuit. This is when parties formally submit their claims and defenses. A complaint is the first pleading filed by a plaintiff which starts the lawsuit. A complaint lists the relevant allegations of fact w ...

                                               

Political freedom

There are different ideas of freedom. In terms of poltics, there are large movements: Liberalism thinks that the freedom of each person is important. Things such as human rights, or a number of freedoms guaranteed by a constitution are achievemen ...

                                               

Possession

Possession usually means to have some sort of ownership over something else. A person may be in possession of some property, which is legal ownership, under property law. There are some other related uses of the term. When English explorer, Capta ...

                                               

Presumption of innocence

The presumption of innocence, is sometimes referred to by the Latin expression Ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat. It is the principle that one is considered innocent unless proven guilty. In many nations, presumption of innocence is a ...

                                               

Primary and secondary legislation

In the parliamentary systems of government, primary legislation and secondary legislation are two forms of law. Primary legislation consists of Acts of Parliament or statute. Secondary legislation is the granting of additional law-making powers t ...

                                               

Primogeniture

Primogeniture is the system of inheritance by the firstborn, usually the eldest son. In feudal England and other legal systems, the legitimate first-born son gets the first right to inherit property. His claim is stronger than all daughters, youn ...

                                               

Pro-choice

Pro-choice is the view that a woman should have the right to decide whether or not to have an abortion and that there should not be laws that stop people from getting abortions. People who are pro-choice believe that people should be able to use ...

                                               

Probate

Probate is the legal process through which the will of a deceased person is accepted and handled by a court. The probate process includes confirming that the will, paying the deceased persons debts, and distributing the deceased persons money and ...

                                               

Promise

When a person agrees to do something or to not do something, that person is making a promise. A promise can be made verbally, or it can be written down as a contract. Breaking a promise, or not keeping it, is often just bad manners, but it can so ...

                                               

Property law

Property law covers two types of property in the common law legal system, real property and personal property. In the civil law system, there is a division between movable and immovable property. Movable property is more or less the same as perso ...

                                               

Property tax

A property tax is a levy on property that the owner is required to pay. The tax is imposed by the governing authority of the jurisdiction in which the property is located. The tax may be paid to a national, state, provincial, county, regional, or ...

                                               

Public interest

Public interest is a term meaning something that benefits all the people. This is compared to a personal interest that only benefits one person. Something that is in the public interest is something that concerns the general public. It is somethi ...

                                               

Public journal

Public journal is the daily record of the work of an official public organization, especially of legislatures of countries and/or its administrative divisions. Journals of this sort are also often called gazettes state or government newspapers. I ...

                                               

Qisas

Qisas or Qisās is a term interpreted to mean "retaliation in kind", "eye for an eye", or retributive justice. In traditional Islamic law, the doctrine of qisas allows a punishment analogous to the crime. Qisas is available to the victim or victim ...

                                               

Racial profiling

Racial profiling is a term which originated in the United States. The usual context is police stopping and searching citizens on the suspicion that they may have committed a crime. It is controversial because it is usually black citizens who are ...

                                               

Ratification

Ratification is the confirmation of a treaty. Treaties are signed by members of the government of a country. Many treaties make a country do something, or change the law of the countries which agree to it. Therefore some countries can only ratify ...

                                               

Reasonable doubt

Evidence that is beyond a reasonable doubt is the standard of evidence required to validate a criminal conviction in most adversarial legal systems. Generally, the prosecutor has the burden of proof and is required to prove their case to this sta ...

                                               

Registration

Registration is a method of officially recording something. Usually something is registered to claim more rights, or to protect ownership, or because the law says it must be registered to be used legally. A register was a large book. It was used ...