ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 94




                                               

Case citation

Case citation is a system used by legal professionals to identify past court case decisions. These are found either in series of books called reporters or law reports, or in a neutral style that identifies a decision regardless of where it is rep ...

                                               

Case law

Case law in a legal system are those laws based on previous judicial decisions. This is opposed to decisions based on existing statutes or regulations. In countries using common law, it is generally uncodified meaning there are no collections of ...

                                               

Cause of action

Under the law, a cause of action is a set of facts sufficient to justify a right to sue to obtain money, property, or the enforcement of a right against another party. It means literally the cause or reason why a party can make a legal case under ...

                                               

Citizenship of the European Union

Citizenship of the European Union was started by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. It is extra to being a citizen of one of the member countries of the European Union, and gives extra rights to nationals of European Union Member States.

                                               

Civil law (common law)

Civil law is a branch of the law in common law countries. The other branch of common law is criminal law. Civil law is concerned with the duties individuals owe to other people or to their government. This excludes the duty not to commit crimes. ...

                                               

Common land

Common land is land where local people have certain rights. For example, to allow their sheep to graze, to collect firewood, or to cut turf for fuel. Originally in mediaeval England the common was part of the manor. Although it was part of the es ...

                                               

Common scold

In the criminal common law of England and Wales, a common scold was a type of public nuisance. The term was applied to a woman who caused trouble and who disturbed the peace by arguing and fighting with her neighbours all the time. The Latin lang ...

                                               

Complaint

In legal terminology, a complaint is any formal legal document that establishes the facts and legal reasons for a lawsuit. A complaint must list the reasons for the plaintiffs case, and it must ask for a specific legal remedy. Once a complaint is ...

                                               

Concurring opinion

In law, a concurring opinion is a written opinion by one or more judges of a court which agrees with the decision made by the majority of the court, but states different reasons for the decision. It may also be used to add comments. When no absol ...

                                               

Constitutional law

Constitutional law is an area of law that shows how the institutions of a country are organised, and the basic rights of citizens. In most countries, such as the United States, this is found in a written text called a constitution. Some countries ...

                                               

Consumer protection

Consumer protection means protecting the rights of consumers. It also helps to protect fair trade competition and truthful information in a market economy. Various laws and organisations are designed to do this. The laws are designed to stop comp ...

                                               

Contract

A contract is an agreement or promise that the law can enforce. The law will enforce some agreements but not others. For example, in most places, if a parent promises to take a child to get ice cream, the law will not enforce that promise as a le ...

                                               

Contribution claim

A contribution claim is a claim made by one or more people in a court case to get money from a person not involved in the case. In most cases, contribution claims are made like the original claim itself. The claim must be personally given to the ...

                                               

Court order

A court order is a formal written direction by a member of the judiciary. It directs a party to do something. It can also be an order not to do something, as in an injunction. An order can be as simple as setting a date for trial. They can also b ...

                                               

Criminal law

Criminal law is the part of law that is about social norms. People who violate these norms are punished for their violation. It is different from civil law. Criminal law wants to protect certain values, such as life and limb, or property. Crimina ...

                                               

Criminal procedure

Criminal procedure refers to the rules that determine how the courts will process a criminal trial. While criminal procedure differs by jurisdiction, the process generally begins with a formal criminal charge and results in the conviction or acqu ...

                                               

Curfew

A curfew is an order which restricts people in their movements. It is very often an order which forbids people to be out on the streets after dark. Curfews may be made by governments in times of war or civil unrest. This is supposed to stop viole ...

                                               

Damages

In law, damages are an award, usually of money. It is to be paid to a person as compensation for loss or injury. The rules for damages can and frequently do vary based on the type of claim which is presented and the jurisdiction. Damages are not ...

                                               

Defense (legal)

In civil proceedings and criminal prosecutions under the common law, a defendant may raise a defense in an attempt to avoid criminal or civil liability. It is an answer, made by a defendant to a plaintiffs action or a denial of a prosecutors char ...

                                               

Derogation

Derogation is the relaxation or exemption from of a rule of law. This is as opposed to a repeal or ending of a law. The term is used in both civil law and common law. It is sometimes used, loosely, to mean abrogation. For example in the legal max ...

                                               

Dissenting opinion

A dissenting opinion is an opinion in a legal case. It is written by one or more judges expressing disagreement with the majority opinion of the court. In some cases, they simply declare a disagreement with the majority opinion. In other cases th ...

                                               

Drivers license

A drivers license, driver license, driver licence, or driving licence is an official document which states that a person may drive a motorized vehicle, such as a motorcycle, car, truck, or a bus.

                                               

Due process

Due process is the legal requirement that the government must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person. Due process balances the power of law of the land and protects the individual person from it. When a government harms a person witho ...

                                               

Duel

A duel is a fight between two people who have similar deadly weapons and have agreed to a set of rules before the fight takes place. The fight is usually about a matter of honor. The goal of a duel is not usually to kill the opponent but to resto ...

                                               

Duty to rescue

Duty to rescue is a concept that many law systems have: In certain cirumstances, someone can be held responsible for not helping another person who is in danger, and who would be injured, or who would die, if not helped. People are required to he ...

                                               

English law

English law, also called common law, is the legal system of England and Wales. It is generally divided into criminal law and civil law. It spread to many parts of the former British Empire including Australia, Canada, the United States and New Ze ...

                                               

Entrapment

Entrapment is inducement to commit a crime, especially by authorities, to get a conviction. The implication is that the person might otherwise have been unlikely to commit the crime. In some countries, entrapment is a possible defence against cri ...

                                               

Ex post facto law

An ex post facto law is a law that changes the legal consequences of actions that were committed before the law went into effect. In criminal law, an ex post facto law may criminalize actions that were legal at the time they were committed, or ma ...

                                               

Executive order

An executive order or executive decree is a rule or order, or a law made by a head of state who has this power given to him by the constitution of the country. The order tells ministries, agencies, the civil service and the military of a state th ...

                                               

Extortion

In law, extortion is a criminal offense. It is obtaining money, property, or service from a person or institution, through coercion. This may be by threat to a victim, to their property or family. It may also be by false claim. Another form of ex ...

                                               

False confession

In law, a confession is when somebody admits that he or she has committed a crime or a felony, which is punishable. In a false confession, the person admits he or she has committed a crime or a felony, but this is not true. False confessions occu ...

                                               

Financial regulation

Financial regulation is supervision of financial institutions to certain rules and guidelines. The aim is to keep the financial system honest and legal. Regulation may be done by either a government or non-government organization. Also, financial ...

                                               

Fiqh

Fiqh or Islamic jurisprudence is an expansion of Sharia law and is meant to be used with fatwas by Islamic clerics to help Muslims not break Sharia law. Fiqh is a section of Islamic law which deals with acts of Muslim, that includes both worship ...

                                               

Garnishment

A garnishment is the means for collecting monetary judgments against a defendant by ordering third parties to pay money directly toward the plaintiff. Wage garnishments are a process of deducting money off employees monetary compensation ; these ...

                                               

General Data Protection Regulation

The General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679) was adopted on 27 April 2016. It took effect on 25 May 2018. The regulation is approved by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union and the European Commission. It protects people ...

                                               

German automobile number plates

German automobile number plates show the place where the automobile carrying them is registered. When a person changes their main home in Germany, or buys a new automobile, they must buy new number plates. Number plates can be bought which are va ...

                                               

Gowling WLG

Gowling WLG is a multinational law firm. It was formed by the merger of Canada-based Gowlings and UK-based Wragge Lawrence Graham & Co in February 2016. This was the first multinational law firm merger between British and Canadian firms. As of 20 ...

                                               

Grand jury

A grand jury is a legal body which has the power to conduct official proceedings to investigate possible criminal conduct. They also decide whether criminal charges should be brought. A grand jury may subpoena evidence and may compel the sworn te ...

                                               

Habeas corpus

A writ of habeas corpus is a writ that requires a person who has been arrested or imprisoned to be brought to a judge or into court. Once the person is brought before the court, the judge will determine if the person is being lawfully detained or ...

                                               

Hong Kong national security law

The Hong Kong national security law is the law that is about national security in Hong Kong. The full name of the law is Law of the Peoples Republic of China on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. It was ...

                                               

Immovable property

Immovable property is property that cannot be moved from one place to another. It is generally connected to the ground or land on which it sits. The term immovable property also includes the land. In real estate law, immovable property has certai ...

                                               

Impartiality

An essential part of any of the worlds legal systems is impartiality. It is important for tribunals, judges, juries and arbitrators to be impartial. It is equally important for the legal systems themselves to be impartial.

                                               

Indian Act

The Indian Act, is a Canadian statute that concerns registered Indians, their bands, and the system of Indian reserves. It was first passed in 1876 and is still in force with amendments. It is the primary document which governs how the Canadian s ...

                                               

Indian nationality law

Article 11- Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law. Article 6- Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan. Article 5- Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution. Article 10- Continua ...

                                               

Indian Penal Code

The Indian Penal Code is the main criminal code of modern India. It is a code meant to cover all aspects of criminal law. The code was drafted on 6th October 1860. on the recommendation of first law commission of india established in 1834 under t ...

                                               

Injunction

Injunctions can be temporary or permanent. A restraining order and a preliminary injunction are examples of temporary injunctions. Either may be issued early in a lawsuit to prevent either party from doing anything that might unfairly influence t ...

                                               

Insanity defense

In criminal trials, the insanity defense is the claim that the defendant is not responsible for his or her actions due to a mental illness. People who have been determined to be insane have been exempt from full criminal punishment since the Code ...

                                               

Intolerable Acts

The Intolerable Acts are laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774. The British Parliament passed these laws to punish the Massachusetts colony for the Boston Tea Party. One of the laws closed Boston Harbor until the colonists paid for the de ...

                                               

Judgment (law)

In law, a judgment is a decision of a court regarding the rights and liabilities of parties in a legal action or proceeding. Judgments also generally provide the courts explanation of why it has chosen to make a particular decision. The phrase "r ...

                                               

Judicial opinion

A judicial opinion is a form of legal opinion written by a judge or a panel of judges explaining how they resolved a legal dispute. It cites the decision reached to resolve the dispute. A judicial opinion usually includes the reasons behind the d ...