## Regression analysis

Regression analysis is a field of statistics. It is a tool to show the relationship between the inputs and the outputs of a system. There are different ways to do this. Better curve fitting usually needs more complex calculations. Data modeling c ...

## Actuary

Actuaries are people who are experts in mathematics, probability, economics, and finance who figure out how much money businesses should charge for making promises to pay for something that may or may not happen.

## Feza Gursey

Feza Gursey was a Turkish mathematician and physicist. Among his most prominent contributions to theoretical physics, his works on the Chiral model and on SU are most popular.

## Roger Joseph Boscovich

Roger Joseph Boscovich was a Croatian polymath and Jesuit from the city of Dubrovnik in the Republic of Ragusa. He studied and lived in Italy and France, where he published many of his works. He produced a precursor of atomic theory and made many ...

## Mathematical notation

Mathematical notation is a field of mathematics. In mathematics and other exact sciences like physics or computer science, problems often need to be presented in some way. In such representations, different symbols have different meanings: There ...

## Equals sign

The equal sign, equals sign, or = is a mathematical symbol used to indicate equality. It looks like two parallel horizontal lines. The equals sign is placed between the things stated to be exactly equal or the same. Computers display the equals s ...

## Infix notation

Infix notation is the common arithmetic and logical formula notation, in which operators are written infix-style between the operands they act on. It is not as simple to parse by computer as prefix notation or postfix notation, but many programmi ...

## Postfix notation

Postfix notation is a mathematical notation. It is a way to write down equations and other mathematical formulae. Postfix notation is also known as Reverse Polish Notation. The notation was invented by Charles Hamblin in 1920. He wanted to simpli ...

## Prefix notation

Prefix notation is a mathematical notation. It is a way to write down equations and other mathematical formulae. Prefix notation is also known as Polish notation. The notation was invented by Jan Lukasiewicz in 1920. He wanted to simplify writing ...

## Vinculum (symbol)

A vinculum is a horizontal line put over a mathematical expression. It shows that it belongs together as a group. Examples are: 1. groups of digits repeating forever, for example, 1 3 = 0.333333 ⋯ = 0. 3 ¯ {\displaystyle {\frac {1}{3}}=0.333333\d ...

## Zenzizenzizenzic

Zenzizenzizenzic is the eighth power of a number. Robert Recorde in The Whetstone of Witte, published in 1557. Although his spelling had the last letter of the word as k. This word is not used any more in math except as a curiosity. The Oxford En ...

## Number

A number is a concept from mathematics, used to count or measure. Depending on the field of mathematics, where numbers are used, there are different definitions: People use symbols to represent numbers; they call them numerals. Common places wher ...

## Binary number

The binary numeral system is a way to write numbers using only two digits: 0 and 1. These are used in computers as a series of "off" and "on" switches. In binary, each digits place value is twice as much as that of the next digit to the right. In ...

## Dozen

A dozen is a unit of measurement. It means twelve items of something. The term goes back to duodecim, which means 12 in Latin. Humans might have started to count on a base 12 because there are approximately 12 cycles of the moon in one cycle of t ...

## Erdos number

The Erdos number honors the Hungarian mathematician Paul Erdos. Erdos was one of the most prolific mathematical writers. He worked with many mathematicians. Paul Erdoss number is 0. Anyone who directly worked with Paul Erdos has an Erdos number o ...

The hexadecimal numeral system, often shortened to "hex", is a numeral system made up of 16 symbols. The standard numeral system is called decimal and uses ten symbols: 0.1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9. Hexadecimal uses the decimal numbers and six extra symbo ...

## Majority

Majority means the greater number of something. The opposite is minority. If more than half the people are right-handed we can say that the majority of people are right-handed. A minority of people are left-handed. In fact, nearly everyone is rig ...

## Names for large numbers

Naming very large numbers is relatively easy. There are two main ways of naming a number: scientific notation and naming by grouping. For example, the number 500 000 can be called 5 x 10 20 in scientific notation since there are 20 zeros behind t ...

## Names for ordinal numbers

Here are some words for small ordinal numbers. Words in bold are irregular. When writing other numbers between 21 and 99, only use the cardinal form of the last number. Also, you must use a hyphen -. 21: twenty-first 64: sixty-fourth 99: ninety-n ...

## Names for small numbers

Naming very small numbers is the same as naming very big numbers, but with one important difference. There is a minus sign over what the 10 in the formula is raised to. So if one wanted to write 0.007 in shorthand form, they would write it 7 x 10 ...

## Names of numbers in English

Here are some words for small numbers. Words in bold are irregular. When writing other numbers between 21 and 99, you must use a hyphen -. 29: twenty-nine 21: twenty-one 64: sixty-four 99: ninety-nine The number 100 is written as "one hundred", b ...

## Number (sports)

In team sports, the number, often referred to as the uniform number, squad number, jersey number, shirt number, sweater number, is the number worn on a players uniform. It distinguishes each player from others wearing the same uniform. This is so ...

## Octal

The octal numeral system is a base 8 numeral system. It uses the numerals 0 through 7. The system is similar to binary and hexadecimal. Octal numerals are written using the letter o before the numeral, for example, o04 or o1242. Octal numbers are ...

## Octet

An octet is a word used to describe the sequence of 8 things in a row. In music, an octet is an ensemble consisting of eight instruments or voices, or a composition written for such an ensemble.

## Odd number

An odd number is an integer when divided by two, either leaves a remainder or the result is a fraction. One is the first odd positive number but it does not leave a remainder 1. Some examples of odd numbers are 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. An integer t ...

## Physical unclonable function

Physical Unclonable Functions are hardware modules that can generate randomness. Their operation is based on "locked" randomness, stemming from tiny imperfections in the manufacturing process of hardware, which result in the production of a bit-s ...

## Quantity

Whole numbers 1, 2, 3. are used to count things. This can be done by pointing to each one. As things are pointed to, a number is said. Start with the number one. Each time another thing is pointed to, the next whole number is used. When the last ...

## Quotient

In mathematics, the quotient is the end result of a division. For example, in the division of 6÷3, the quotient would be 2. Here, 6 is also called the dividend, and 3 the divisor. The quotient can thus be expressed as the number of times the divi ...

## Rational number

In mathematics, a rational number is a number that can be written as a fraction. The set of rational number is often represented by the symbol Q {\displaystyle \mathbb {Q} }, standing for "quotient" in English. Rational numbers are all real numbe ...

## Repeating decimal

Repeating decimal is a decimal where the number or pattern repeats forever. Repeating decimal is resulted when dividing a number by a number that is not divisible except for certain cases like dividing any number by 5. For example, dividing 7 by ...

## Serial number

A serial number is a unique number used for identification. Serial numbers are made in such a way that they change by a fixed discrete integer value, each time a new serial number is needed. Most people refer to any identifier that has numbers an ...

## Sign (mathematics)

In mathematics, the word sign refers to the property of being positive or negative. Every real number that is non-zero is either positive or negative, and therefore has a sign. Zero itself is without a sign, or signless. In addition to putting si ...

## Probability theory

Probability theory is the part of mathematics that studies random situations. Probability theory usually studies random events, random variables, stochastic processes, and non-deterministic events. Tossing a coin, winning the lottery, or rolling ...

## Conditional probability

In probability theory, conditional probability is the probability of an event occuring, given that another event has occurred. Usually this is written as P {\displaystyle P}. This is read as "probability of A given B". The two events need not be ...

## Probability

Probability is a part of applied mathematics. It has to do with chance, the study of things that might happen or might not happen. For example, using probability, one can show that by throwing a coin up in the air and letting it land, half of the ...

## Algorithm

An algorithm is a step procedure to solve logical and mathematical problems. A recipe is a good example of an algorithm because it says what must be done, step by step. It takes inputs ingredients and produces an output the completed dish. The wo ...

## Droste effect

The Droste Effect is the name for a picture which contains a smaller image of itself, which in turn contains a smaller image of itself, etc. It is named after an advertisement. It is an example of recursion. In art, this is known as mise en abyme ...

## Set

A set is an idea from mathematics. A set has members. A set is defined by its members, so any two sets with the same members are the same. A set cannot have the same member more than once. Membership is the only thing that matters. For example, t ...

## Set theory

Set theory is the study of sets in mathematics. Sets are collections of objects. We refer to these objects as "elements" or "members" of the set. To write a set, one wraps the numbers in {curly brackets}, and separates them with commas. For examp ...

## Axiom of choice

In mathematics the axiom of choice, sometimes called AC, is an axiom used in set theory. The axiom of choice says that if you have a set of objects and you separate the set into smaller sets, each containing at least one object, it is possible to ...

## Cantors diagonal argument

Cantors diagonal argument is a mathematical method to prove that two infinite sets have the same cardinality. Cantor published articles on it in 1877, 1891 and 1899. His first proof of the diagonal argument was published in 1890 in the journal of ...

## Cardinality

In mathematics, the cardinality of a set means the number of its elements. For example, the set A = {2, 4, 6} contains 3 elements, and therefore A has a cardinality of 3. The cardinality of a set A can also be represented as | A | {\displaystyle ...

## Cartesian product

In mathematics, sets can be used to make new sets. Given two sets A and B, the Cartesian product of A with B is written as A × B, and is the set of all ordered pairs whose first element is a member of A, and whose second element is a member of B. ...

## Continuum hypothesis

The continuum hypothesis is a hypothesis that there is no set that is both bigger than that of the natural numbers and smaller than that of the real numbers. Georg Cantor stated this hypothesis in 1877. There are infinitely many natural numbers, ...

## Countable set

In mathematics, a countable set is a set whose elements can be counted. A set with one thing in it is countable, and so is a set with one hundred things in it. A set with all the natural numbers in it is countable too. This is because even if it ...

## Empty set

In mathematics, the empty set is the set that has nothing in it. It is often written as ∅ {\displaystyle \varnothing }, ∅ {\displaystyle \emptyset }, { } {\displaystyle \{\}}. For example, consider the set of integer numbers between two and three ...

## Finite set

In mathematics, a finite set is a set that is not infinite. A finite set has a certain number of elements. The elements of the set can be numbered like {1, 2., n } and n must either be a natural number or zero. An infinite set is a set with an un ...

## Infimum and supremum

In mathematics, the infimum or greatest lower bound of a set A, written as inf {\displaystyle \inf}, is the greatest element among all lower bounds of A. Similarly, the supremum or least upper bound of A, written as sup {\displaystyle \sup}, is t ...

## Multiset

The bags that can be used for shopping are at bag. A multiset is a concept from mathematics. In many ways, multisets are like sets. Certain items are either elements of that multiset, or they are not. However, multisets are different from sets: T ...

## Naive set theory

When people started to talk about sets, mostly in the 19th century, they did this using natural language. It uses many of the concepts already known from discrete mathematics; for example Venn diagrams to show which elements are contained in a se ...