ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 313




                                               

Serbia and Montenegro

Serbia and Montenegro was the name of the state union of Serbia and Montenegro. They used to be two separate Yugoslav republics. In 2006, they became their own countries. It was on the west-central Balkan Peninsula, next Bosnia and Herzegovina an ...

                                               

Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League was an alliance of trading guilds. These guilds established and maintained a trade monopoly over the Baltic Sea and most of Northern Europe. This monopoly lasted for a time in the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period ...

                                               

Berlin

Berlin) is the capital city of Germany. It is the largest city in the European Union by population, with more than 3.7 million people. The city is in the eastern part of Germany. It is about 70 km west of Poland. Berlin has an area of 891 km 2. T ...

                                               

Coesfeld

Coesfeld is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and the capital of Coesfeld county. Nepomucenum and St Pius-Gymnasium are highschools in Coesfeld.

                                               

Cologne

Cologne is a city on the Rhine River in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany. About 1.060.000 people live there, making Cologne the biggest city in North Rhine-Westphalia. It is in the southern part of the Rhine-Ruhr agglomeration of ci ...

                                               

Demmin

German troops destroyed the bridges over the Peene while retreating from Demmin during World War II. This way, the advance of the Soviet Red Army was slowed down when they arrived in Demmin on April 30, 1945. During that night and the following m ...

                                               

Elblag

Elblag is a city in northern Poland on the eastern edge of the Zulawy region with 124.257 inhabitants. Elblag is one of the oldest cities in the province and in Poland.

                                               

Kingston upon Hull

Kingston upon Hull, often shortened to Hull, is a city and unitary authority independent of a county in the region of Yorkshire and the Humber, in the Ceremonial county of East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It is on both sides of the River Hull w ...

                                               

Kampen, Netherlands

Kampen is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands. As of 2021, about 54.000 people are living there. It is the home of football team DOS Kampen.

                                               

Kaunas

Kaunas, also known by several other names, is the second biggest city in Lithuania and used to be a temporary capital. Kaunas is found at the point where the two biggest Lithuanian rivers, the Nemunas and the Neris, meet. It is also near the Kaun ...

                                               

London

London is the capital of the United Kingdom and England. London is the city region with the highest population in the United Kingdom. With it being located along River Thames, London has been a central city since it was founded by the Romans two ...

                                               

Soest, Germany

Soest is along the Hellweg road, about 50 kilometres east of Dortmund and about 50 kilometres west of Paderborn.

                                               

Wroclaw

Wroclaw is the biggest city in Lower Silesian Voivodeship in the southwest part of Poland. The German name of the city is Breslau, and the Czech name is Vratislav. The Oder River goes through the city. There are also 4 other small rivers which co ...

                                               

York

York is a historic walled city in North Yorkshire, England. The Romans called it Eboracum, and the Vikings called it Jorvik. The city has been important in many political events in its two millennia of existence. The city offers many historical a ...

                                               

Royal Panteon of San Isidoro

The Royal Panteon of San Isidoro is where the kings and queens of Leon are buried. It is inside the Basilica of San Isidoro. It is in the Romanesque style of architecture. People were buried there during the Kingdom of Leon in the Middle Ages. Th ...

                                               

Middle Ages

The Middle Ages were a period of about a thousand years in European history. They started around the year 476 CE when the Western Roman Empire ended, and continued until around the time Christopher Columbus arrived in the New World in 1492. The M ...

                                               

Cluniac Reforms

The Cluniac Reform was a series of changes within medieval monasticism. The reforms focused on restoring the traditional life in the monasteries. Monasteries should encourage the production of artworks. They should also care for the poor. The ref ...

                                               

Courtly love

Courtly love is a special idea of love that people had in Europe in the Middle Ages. The word "court" means the courts where princes or dukes lived. Courtly love is usually when a young man, who may be a peasant or even a simple King, falls in lo ...

                                               

Early Middle Ages

The Roman Empire ruled much of Europe in ancient history. It became weaker and finally collapsed in 476. When it collapsed, its army stopped working and its communication systems also stopped working. This made the people in Europe unable to talk ...

                                               

Great hall

A great hall was the main room of a royal palace, a noblemans castle or a large manor house in the Middle Ages. At that time the word great meant big. Great halls were found in France, England and Scotland and some other European countries.

                                               

Guild

A guild is an association of craftspeople or merchants who control the practice of their craft in a town. Many groups of people started as guilds, including scholars, and religious guilds. Many modern organisations, like universities, started as ...

                                               

Knights Hospitaller

The Knights Hospitaller were a group of military knights fighting in Jerusalem. They are the group that became the Knights of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem and, eventually, St. John Ambulance. The Hospitallers are a Catholic military order f ...

                                               

Medieval commune

Medieval townspeople in western Europe during the period of the High Middle Ages needed protection from lawless nobles and bandits. The walled city was protection from direct assault, but once a townsperson left the city walls, he or she was at t ...

                                               

Normans

The Normans were Vikings who settled in northern France. There they made a kingdom called Normandy. In 1066 the Normans attacked England and took over. The battle was called The Battle Of Hastings. They ruled England for about 300 years. There th ...

                                               

Varangians

The Varangians or Varyags was the name given by Greeks and East Slavs to Vikings. Between the 9th and the 11th centuries they ruled the medieval state of Rus. They were the personal bodyguards of the Byzantine Emperors, and formed the Byzantine V ...

                                               

NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance, the Western Alliance, is a military alliance. It was established by the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949 and it was signed in Washington, DC, United States, o ...

                                               

IFOR

The Implementation Force was a NATO-led multinational peace enforcement force in Bosnia and Herzegovina under a one-year mandate from 20 December 1995 to 20 December 1996 under the codename Operation Joint Endeavour.

                                               

North Atlantic Treaty

The North Atlantic Treaty is the treaty that founded NATO. It was signed in Washington, DC on April 4, 1949. The original twelve nations that signed it and thus became the founding members of NATO were the following: Later the following nations j ...

                                               

Protestant Reformation

The Protestant Reformation was a series of events that happened in the 16th century in the Christian Church. Because of corruption in the Catholic Church, some people saw that the way it worked needed to change. People like Erasmus, Huldrych Zwin ...

                                               

Elizabethan Religious Settlement

The Elizabethan Religious Settlement was Elizabeth I’s answer to the religious quarrels that developed during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and Mary I. This answer was given in two Acts of the Parliament of England. The Act of Supremacy of ...

                                               

Five solas

In Europe in the 16th century there was a big change in the Christian religion. In this Protestant Reformation, hundreds of thousands of people left the Catholic church to form Protestant churches all over Europe. "The Five solas" are an importan ...

                                               

Peace of Westphalia

The Peace of Westphalia refers to the pair of peace treaties, the Treaty of Osnabruck and the Treaty of Munster, signed on May 15 and October 24 of 1648, which ended both the Thirty Years War and the Eighty Years War. The treaties involved the Ho ...

                                               

Besançon Commune

The Besançon Commune was a short-lived revolutionary movement conceived in 1871, aiming at the setting of a local autonomous power based on Lyon and Paris experiences. It originates from sociological changes of the city and creation of unions. Th ...

                                               

Cornish Rebellion of 1497

The Cornish Rebellion of 1497 was a popular uprising by the people of Cornwall in the far southwest of Britain. Its primary cause was the peoples response to the raising of war taxes by King Henry VII to pay for a campaign against Scotland. Tin m ...

                                               

Dutch resistance

The Dutch resistance was a movement of Dutch people who fought against the German occupation of the Netherlands during World War II. They fought the Nazis in many different ways, mostly without using violence. The resistance helped to hide 300.00 ...

                                               

Easter Rising

The Easter Rising was a rebellion in Dublin, Ireland at Easter in 1916. It started on April 24, 1916 and ended on April 29, 1916. It was carried out by members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and members of the Irish Citizens Army. It was don ...

                                               

French Resistance

The French Resistance is the name used to refer to the different French resistance movements that fought against the Nazi German military occupation in France during World War II. Resistance cells were small groups of armed men and women who kill ...

                                               

Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution was an event in the history of England and Scotland in 1688. The people of England and Scotland did not like the Catholic King James II because he would not let them vote or practice the religion of their choice. They invi ...

                                               

Gunpowder Plot

The Gunpowder Conspiracy of 1605 was a plan to murder King James I of England and VI of Scotland. Other names for the plot are The Powder Treason or The Gunpowder Plot. A group of Catholics wanted to blow up the Houses of Parliament during the St ...

                                               

Revolutions of 1848 in the German states

The Revolutions in the German states developed in most of the 38 states of Germany that were loosely bound together in the German Confederation after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. To these states belonged Austria as well though Hungary that was ...

                                               

Third Servile War

The Third Servile War, also called the Gladiator War and The War of Spartacus by Plutarch, was the last of several slave rebellions against the Roman Republic. These are called the Servile Wars. The Third Servile War was the only which was danger ...

                                               

Wars of Scottish Independence

The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. The First War 1296–1328 began with the English invasion of Scotland in 1296, and ended with the s ...

                                               

White Rose

The White Rose was a German group that opposed the Nazis in World War II. They distributed pamphlets denouncing Adolf Hitlers regime from June 1942 until February 1943. The group consisted of students from the University of Munich along with a pr ...

                                               

Domenico Ghirlandaio

Domenico Ghirlandaio was an Italian painter. He painted during the Renaissance in Florence. He was an important painter in the time of the Renaissance. In about 1480, he became the official portrait artist for wealthy people in Florence. Domenico ...

                                               

Italian Renaissance

The Italian Renaissance was the earliest beginning of the general European Renaissance. It was a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century. It lasted into the 17th century, marking the gradual cha ...

                                               

Italian Renaissance art

Italian Renaissance art is a style of painting and sculpture that began in the late 13th century with the work of the painter Giotto and a sculptor Nicola Pisano. The Renaissance way of painting and sculpting did not become the usual style until ...

                                               

Masaccio

Tommaso Guidi, better known as Masaccio, was a famous painter of the Italian Renaissance. He worked in Florence. Masaccio was a nickname that meant Fat Untidy Tom. He lived a very short life and only a few of his paintings exist, but they were so ...

                                               

Lorenzo de Medici

Lorenzo de Medici was an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance. He was called Lorenzo the Magnificent by Florentines. He was a diplomat, politician and patron of scholars, artists, and poet ...

                                               

Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in the history of Europe beginning in about 1400, and following the Medieval period. "Renaissance" is a French word meaning "rebirth". The period is called by this name because at that time, people started taking an in ...

                                               

Renaissance architecture

The Dome of Florence Cathedral Florence Cathedral, called il Duomo, built by Arnolfo di Cambio, had a huge hole at the centre. The competition to build a roof over it was won by Brunelleschi who built the largest dome since Roman times. He clever ...